How IP address is structured
Most of you must have tried to understand how an IP address works and how it is built with a series of numbers separated by dots. (xx.xx.xx.xx)
There is so much behind this configuration & this may surprise you there is a big logic behind these series of numbers & all the Internet works only on this number series called as IP address.
IP ADDRESS STRUCTURE
1. The Network Address
2. The Host Address
IP address structure
Every ” — ” = 8 bits.
The first bits ===> network address
The last bits ===> host address.
with 8 bits you can present from 0-255 . (binary=(2 to the power of 8)-1)
IP address CLASSES :
We can classify IP addresses to 5 groups. You can distinguish them by comparing the “High Order” bits (the first four bits on the
left of the address):
Notice the address range 127.X.X.X.
Distinguishing different groups:
You have to compare the first byte on the left in the address as follows:
Yes, we know, we’ve left A LOT of things unexplained in this text. With time, I will write more tutorials to cover these and other subjects.
weird shit (newbie note):
(copied from RFC 1112)
IP multicasting is the transmission of an IP datagram to a “host group”, a set of zero or more hosts identified by a single IP destination address. A multicast datagram is delivered to all members of its destination host group with the same “best-efforts” reliability as regular unicast IP datagrams, i.e., the datagram is not guaranteed to arrive intact at all members of the destination group or in the same order relative to other datagrams.
The membership of a host group is dynamic; that is, hosts may join and leave groups at any time. There is no restriction on the location or number of members in a host group. A host may be a member of more than one group at a time. A host need not be a member of a group to send datagrams to it.
A host group may be permanent or transient. A permanent group has a well-known, administratively assigned IP address. It is the address, not the membership of the group, that is permanent; at any time a permanent group may have any number of members, even zero. Those IP multicast addresses that are not reserved for permanent groups are available for dynamic assignment to transient groups which exist only as long as they have members.
Internetwork forwarding of IP multicast datagrams(IP packets)is handled by “multicast routers” which may be co-resident with, or separate from, internet gateways. A host transmits an IP multicast datagram as a local network multicast which reaches all immediately-neighboring members of the destination host group. If the datagram has an IP time-to-live greater than 1, the multicast router(s) attached to the local network take responsibility for forwarding it towards all other networks that have members of the destination group. On those other member networks that are reachable within the IP time-to-live, an attached multicast router completes delivery by transmitting the datagram(IP packet) as a local multicast.
*if you don’t understand the above do not worry, it is complicated and dry but reread it and read it again get a dictionary if it helps. Hacking is not easy.
Most Significant Bit
Inset numbers the first number on the left is the most important because it holds the highest value as opposed to the LSB=> least significant bit, it always holds the smallest value.
That’s it, for now, guys, I will be writing more articles to unleash more secrets & knowledge that somehow will help you for sure. For any doubts that you might have you always have a comment section right below, feel free to comment your query or any feedback. It will really be appreciated.